Gramsci, Antonio

A prominent Italian Marxist theorist and noted critic of economic determinism . After a childhood marked by poverty and ill-health, Gramsci entered the University of Turin, where he seems to have been a particularly talented student of language-related matters. However, because of continuing poverty and deepening political involvements, he left the university in 1915 after four years of study and without graduating. Thereafter he became, in turn, an influential journalist, a prominent political activist and parliamentarian, the leader of the Italian Communist Party (1924-6), and, finally, a political prisoner in Mussolini's gaols (1926-37).
Without denying in any way his immense political importance before and after his death, it nevertheless seems reasonable to say that his current exalted reputation amongst Marxist social scientists rests on the writings now known as The Prison Notebooks (1929-35, edited and translated into English in 1971). Among the topics discussed in the notebooks are: intellectuals , education, Italian history, political parties , fascism , hegemony , and fordism .
These, then, are the ideas and concepts that made Gramsci a pivotal figure in the debates and developments within Marxist social science during the 1970s-as, first, Nicos Poulantzas used them to develop his political sociology; and, later, numerous others used them as a conceptual bridge connecting the Marxist tradition with that of discourse analysis. A good introduction to his life and work, which discusses most of the sociological concepts and topics mentioned above, is James Joll's Gramsci(1977). See also ideology.

Dictionary of sociology. 2013.

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  • Gramsci, Antonio — born Jan. 23, 1891, Ales, Sardinia died April 27, 1937, Rome, Italy Italian intellectual and politician. After entering the University of Turin, he joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1914. In 1921 he left the Socialists to found the Italian… …   Universalium

  • Gramsci, Antonio — (1891–1937)    One of the most important and influential of Marxist thinkers. Antonio Gramsci outlined an interpretation of Marxism that offers an alternative to Leninism and suggests imaginative innovations and revisions to orthodox Marxism. In… …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Gramsci, Antonio — (1891–1937)    Born in Cagliari, Sardinia, Gramsci overcame a serious childhood accident and his family’s limited economic means to attend the university in Turin. It was here that he began his involvement in politics, joining the Partito… …   Historical Dictionary of modern Italy

  • Gramsci,Antonio — Gram·sci (grämʹshē), Antonio. 1891 1937. Italian political leader and theorist who helped establish the Italian Communist party in 1921. Mussolini later outlawed the party and Gramsci was imprisoned (1926 1937). * * * …   Universalium

  • Gramsci, Antonio — ► (1891 1937) Político y teórico marxista italiano. Fundó, con Togliatti, el Partido Comunista Italiano (1921), y cuyo órgano, L´Unità, creó tres años después. Para Gramsci el marxismo no es un sistema sino una crítica continua junto con una… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Gramsci, Antonio — (1891–1937) Italian communist and social theorist. Born in Sardinia and educated in Turin, Gramsci became one of the most celebrated 20th century interpreters of Marx . A principal founder and the first general secretary of the Italian communist… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Gramsci, Antonio — See Marxism ( …   History of philosophy

  • GRAMSCI, Antonio — (1891 1937)    Italian COMMUNIST leader and THEORETICAL MARXIST who is viewed by many as the most important European communist since LENIN. His works became fashionable among left wing intellectuals in Britain and America because they appeared to …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • Gramsci, Antonio — (Ales, Oristano 1891 Roma 1937) scrittore e saggista; uomo politico …   Dizionario biografico elementare del Novecento letterario italiano

  • Gramsci — Gramsci, Antonio …   Philosophy dictionary

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